The current zika virus epidemic in Brazil has resulted in increased awareness and active searching for microcephaly -which may have other genetic and in environmental causes. The definition of microcephaly also includes some normal individuals.
The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), describes case-cohort studies of pregnant women to answer whether there is a causal relationship between prenatal exposure to the zika virus and microcephaly. Syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpesvirus are other infectious causes. Parallel case studies would also include examinations to detect genetic causes.